Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?
A lot of people are confused with the meaning of dyslexia.
What is the meaning of dyslexia?
There are two different meanings of dyslexia.
The first meaning is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. Literally, the word dyslexia refers to difficulty with words. People that are having difficulty in reading has dyslexia.
The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This is usually used by dyslexic adults and parents of dyslexics. In the application part, dyslexia refers to a lot of symptom such as problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.
The exact meaning of dyslexia actually depends on how the word is being used.
In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall attempted to subdivide dyslexia and describe each kind. They started with the ideas of surface dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia and phonological dyslexia.
Below are the different kinds of dyslexia:
A. Surface dyslexia
One of the symptoms of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. For example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty
B. Phonological dyslexia
Phonological dyslexia actually refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. People that have phonological dyslexia have problems in reading new words.
C. Double deficit dyslexia
Double deficit dyslexia is the term that they use for individuals that have phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia.
D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia
The visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia are from the magnocellular theory. In this theory, people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells that can be found in the thalamus part of brain. This area of the brain is actually the part that processes all of the auditory information and visual information.
There are studies that shows, that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.
This means that children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.
E. Orthographic dyslexia
Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that will create a language. The english alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have thousands of different types of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia is problems with the identification and manipulation of letters in spelling, writing and reading.